Game #1: Betting with even odds on getting at least one six on four rolls of a fair die.
Game #2: Betting with even odds on getting at least a double six on 24 rolls of a pair of dice.
Source and answers here:
I also learned today that Dutch people really like to gamble and it lead to the development of the futures marekt in the 17th century. Instead of buying tulips as commodities, they started betting/buying what tulip harvest will bring in for the upcoming year.
Most people would point out that the Japanese invented the "futures market" as the first true futures market was the Dojima Rice Exchange in Osaka, Japan. The tulip mania may have been futures contracts, but there wasn't an established market per se.
Gerolamo Cardano, an Italian mathematician and gambler who was friends with Leonardo DaVinci had written a book on gambling in 1523, but it wasn't published for another 150 years.
Cardano died 40 years before Chevelier de Mere was born.
Cardano's is the name of an risk management firm today.
Although "witchcraft or magic" certainly sounds like typical sola scriptura-thumping Enlightenment historiography. At least, although it doesn't survive, Claudius is on record as having written a book on dice.
It is worth pointing out that engineers knew long before philosophers that projectiles flew in parabolas, although it took the philosophers to calculate them precisely.