**Arithmetic**: Arithmetic is a fundamental skill in mathematics that involves the basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It is measured in this test to assess the candidates' ability to solve numerical problems accurately and efficiently, which is crucial for various roles that require strong quantitative skills.

**Algebra**: Algebra is a branch of mathematics that deals with symbols and the rules for manipulating those symbols to solve equations and represent relationships. It is measured in this test to evaluate the candidates' ability to understand and solve algebraic expressions and equations, which is essential for jobs that involve problem-solving and abstract thinking.

**Geometry**: Geometry is the branch of mathematics that studies the properties, measurements, and relationships of points, lines, angles, and shapes. It is measured in this test to assess the candidates' spatial reasoning skills and their ability to solve problems related to shapes and spatial relationships, which is valuable in fields like architecture, engineering, and design.

**Probability**: Probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with the likelihood of events occurring. It is measured in this test to determine the candidates' understanding of probability concepts and their ability to analyze and make decisions based on uncertain outcomes, which is useful in fields such as statistics, finance, and risk assessment.

**Logical Reasoning**: Logical reasoning is the process of using rational thinking and deductive reasoning to analyze and solve problems. It is measured in this test to evaluate the candidates' ability to think critically, make logical connections, and solve complex problems, which is crucial for roles that require decision-making, problem-solving, and analytical skills.

**Number Theory**: Number theory is the branch of mathematics that focuses on properties and relationships of numbers, especially integers. It is measured in this test to assess the candidates' understanding of number patterns, primes, divisibility rules, and other number properties, which is relevant in fields such as cryptography, data encryption, and computational mathematics.

**Ratio and Proportion**: Ratio and proportion are mathematical concepts that represent the relationship between two or more quantities. It is measured in this test to evaluate the candidates' ability to compare, analyze, and solve problems involving the relative sizes and proportions of different quantities, which is important in areas such as finance, statistics, and engineering.

**Percentage**: Percentage is a way of expressing a number or quantity as a fraction of 100. It is measured in this test to determine the candidates' understanding of percentages and their ability to work with proportions, ratios, and calculations related to percentages, which is useful in various fields such as finance, economics, and data analysis.

**Time and Work**: Time and work is a mathematical concept that deals with the relationship between the time taken to complete a task and the rate at which work is done. It is measured in this test to assess the candidates' ability to solve problems related to work allocation, time management, and productivity, which is important in fields such as project management, operations, and resource planning.

**Profit and Loss**: Profit and loss is a concept in mathematics and economics that relates to the financial gain or loss resulting from business transactions and investments. It is measured in this test to evaluate the candidates' understanding of profit and loss calculations, cost analysis, and financial decision-making, which is valuable in roles involving financial management, entrepreneurship, and business operations.